Jarrel Seah, Zoe Brady, Kyle Ewert and Meng Law
Artificial intelligence, including deep learning, is currently revolutionising the field of medical imaging, with far reaching implications for almost every facet of diagnostic imaging, including patient radiation safety. This paper introduces basic concepts in deep learning and provides an overview of its recent history and its application in tomographic reconstruction as well as other applications in medical imaging to reduce patient radiation dose, as well as a brief description of previous tomographic reconstruction techniques. This review also describes the commonly used deep learning techniques as applied to tomographic reconstruction and draws parallels to current reconstruction techniques. Finally, this paper reviews some of the estimated dose reductions in CT and positron emission tomography in the recent literature enabled by deep learning, as well as some of the potential problems that may be encountered such as the obscuration of pathology, and highlights the need for additional clinical reader studies from the imaging community.